Fresnel particle tracing in three dimensions using diffraction phase microscopy
Imaging voltage-dependent cell motions with heterodyne Mach-Zehnder phase microscopy

Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells

Abstract.  We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.

  • Topographies of sickle RBCs. (a) echinocyte (type II), (b) discocyte (type III), and (c) crescent-shaped ISC (type IV).
  • (a) Phase image of a typical sickle RBC. (b) The long axis is rotated to be aligned with the horizontal axis and the center of mass of the sickle RBC is moved to the center. (c) The retrieved light scattering pattern with the denoted angle ranges for the long and short axes. (d) Light intensity-scattering patterns with respect to the long and short axes of the RBC.
  • The static light-intensity scattering patterns associated with individual sickle RBCs of (a) type II, (b) type III, and (c) type IV. Thin lines are from individual sickle RBCs; thick line represents the averaged scattering pattern. The scattering patterns along the long axis are offset up for clarity. (inset) the averaged scattering patterns along short and long axes without offset.
  • (a) Peak frequency ω0 and (b) line width Γ extracted from healthy and sickle RBCs. Error bars indicate the standard errors.
Figures in this Article

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder where a point mutation in the ββ-globin gene results into production of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) instead of hemoglobin (HbA).1 Under deoxygenated condition, HbS self-assembles inside the red blood cell (RBC) and dramatically damages the RBC membrane structure, often resulting into a sickle-shaped RBC. This sickle RBC has a considerably reduced deformability, causing abnormal rheological properties of sickle blood and eventually vaso-occlusion and organ damage.

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